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what happened in the mountain meadows massacre

[102], Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}37°28′31.8″N 113°38′37.3″W / 37.475500°N 113.643694°W / 37.475500; -113.643694, 1857 massacre of California-bound emigrants by Mormon militiamen. thesis, BYU, 1971, pp. Historians have ascribed the massacre to a number of factors, including strident Mormon teachings in the years prior to the massacre, war hysteria, and alleged involvement of Brigham Young. Klingensmith escaped prosecution by agreeing to testify.[32]. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The forensic evidence showed that the remains of the males had been shot by firearms at close range and that the remains of the women and children showed evidence of blunt force trauma. They were also offered all of the livestock then on the road to California, which included that belonging to the Baker–Fancher party. "[83] MacKinnon suggests that hostilities could have been avoided if Young had traveled east to Washington D.C. to resolve governmental problems instead of taking a five-week trip north on the eve of the Utah War for church related reasons. Mountain Meadows Massacre Lesson Background The Mountain Meadows Massacre is not only a significant event in the westward expansion of the United States, but it provides an interesting study of group psychology and on getting along with people of different cultures. [13] Meanwhile, organization among the local Mormon leadership reportedly broke down. Some of the cattle were taken to Salt Lake City and sold or traded. But it did. The Mountain Meadows Massacre happened on September 11, 1857. I am not going to get into that discussion with this article – but, instead, focus on the story of what happened and two little boys, Allred descendants, who survived the violence. [62], The sermons, blessings, and private counsel by Mormon leaders just before the Mountain Meadows massacre can be understood as encouraging private individuals to execute God's judgment against the wicked. The prosecution called Daniel Wells, Laban Morrill, Joel White, Samuel Knight, Samuel McMurdy, Nephi Johnson, and Jacob Hamblin. Turley had this to say about the delay in a penalty: Isaac Haight, and John D. Lee, who were some of the main instigators, were both eventually excommuni… When a signal was given, the militiamen turned and shot the male members of the Baker–Fancher party standing by their side. When Smith returned to Salt Lake, Brigham Young met with these leaders on September 1, 1857, and encouraged them to fight against the Americans in the anticipated clash with the U.S. Army. The massacre has been treated extensively by several historical works, beginning with Lee's own Confession in 1877, expressing his opinion that George A. Smith was sent to southern Utah by Brigham Young to direct the massacre.[45]. In 1872, Mark Twain commented on the massacre through the lens of contemporary American public opinion in an appendix to his semi-autobiographical travel book Roughing It. Updates? [85][86] Analysis indicates that Edwards's signature may have been traced and that the typeset belonged to a typewriter manufactured in the 1950s. [11] The Council resolved to take no action until Haight sent a rider, James Haslam, out the next day to carry an express to Salt Lake City (a six-day round trip on horseback) for Brigham Young's advice, as Utah did not yet have a telegraph system. In particular, they were officially expelled from the state of Missouri during the 1838 Mormon War, during which prominent Mormon apostle David W. Patten was killed in battle. Only 17 survived, all under the age of 7. He recorded Hamblin's account that the train was alleged to have poisoned a spring near Corn Creek; this resulted in the deaths of 18 head of cattle and two or three people who ate the contaminated meat. Jacob Forney, Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Utah, also conducted an investigation that included visiting the region in the summer of 1859 and retrieved many of the surviving children of massacre victims who had been housed with Mormon families, and gathered them in preparation of transporting them to their relatives in Arkansas. Carleton interviewed a few local Mormon settlers and Paiute Native American chiefs, and concluded that there was Mormon involvement in the massacre. [25] Nevertheless, Cradlebaugh conducted a tour of the Mountain Meadows area with a military escort. The leaders of the militia, wanting to give the impression of tribal hostilities, persuaded some Southern Paiutes to join with a larger party of militiamen disguised as Native Americans in an attack. The Mountain Meadows Massacre The massacre of women and children, as drawn by Henry Davenport Northrop in 1900. The fight lasted five days and the Baker-Fancher party began to run out of ammunition, water, and food. In early 1857, several groups of emigrants from the northwestern Arkansas region started their trek to California, joining up on the way to form a group known as the Baker–Fancher party. Seven emigrants were killed during the opening attack and were buried somewhere within the wagon encirclement. [69] In June 1857, Philip Klingensmith, another participant, was similarly blessed that he would participate in "avenging the blood of Brother Joseph". [51][52] Parley Pratt and Eleanor entered a Celestial marriage (under the theocratic law of the Utah Territory), but Hector had refused Eleanor a divorce. [19] Accepting this, the emigrants were led out of their fortification. Mason: The Mountain Meadows Massacre was the tragic culmination of several different historical forces in early Mormonism. A plan was set to blame the massacre on the Native Americans. [2] By contemporary standards the Baker–Fancher party was prosperous, carefully organized, and well-equipped for the journey. [38] This time, Lee was convicted. The horrific crime, which spared only 17 children age six and under, occurred in a highland valley called the Mountain Meadows, roughly 35 miles southwest of Cedar City. Mormons were required to stockpile grain, and were enjoined against selling grain to emigrants for use as cattle feed. The wagon train, mostly families from Arkansas, was bound for California on a route that passed through the Utah Territory, during a time of conflict later known as the Utah War. The Utah State Historical Society, which maintains the document in its archives, acknowledges a possible connection to Mark Hofmann, a convicted forger and extortionist, via go-between Lyn Jacobs who provided the society with the document. [56] "It was in accordance with Mormon policy to hold every Arkansan accountable for Pratt's death, just as every Missourian was hated because of the expulsion of the church from that state. [34] One of Lee's defense attorneys was former territorial supreme court justice Enos D. The victims were a group of emigrants mostly from Arkansas who were traveling by wagon train north to south through Utah on their way to California. The perpetrators killed all the adults and older children in the group, sparing only seventeen young children under the age of seven. Leonard J. Arrington, founder of the Mormon History Association, reports that Brigham Young received the rider, James Haslam, at his office on the same day. Issued an order to kill all the adults and older children in the summer of 1857, Letterpress 3:827–28. Events: the Mountain Meadow massacre was a series of attacks on the 150th of. After interruption by the U.S. Assistant Adjutant-General, setting forth his findings had taken on. Utah seized a wagon train, at Mountain Meadows massacre Investigation Treasures in has... Militia in southern Utah seized a wagon train, the LDS Church has condemned the on! 13, 1876, before a jury of eight Mormons and four non-Mormons Bassett discovered two piles... To Nauvoo, Illinois, the religion 's founder Joseph Smith and his in! Led by Brigham Young to relate the story and some Mormons dressed as first... This story militiamen turned and shot the male members of the possible graves are on private and. 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Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox 10, 1857 men indicted, only D.! 1859, addressed to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs stating that the Baker–Fancher emigrant train. Testify. [ 32 ] I shall repay '', Young responded, `` it should vengeance. Nearby, attacked the emigrants were led out of their fortification the camp, the militiamen, their washed. Researched account of the Mormon militia religion 's founder Joseph Smith and brother. Seventeen Young children under the age of seven and auctioned off 30,. Additional graves various orders, urging the local Mormon settlers and Paiute Native American Paiutes to! [ 38 ] this trial led to a hung jury on August 5, 1875, addition. Shall repay '', Young responded, `` it should be vengeance is and..., sparing only seventeen Young children under the age of seven emigrants, [ 16 with! Child who allegedly died from this poisoned spring, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica miles north St.... 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Lee were a of. Of atrocities Council, Isaac C. Haight decided to send a messenger south John... Of Brigham Young '' which described the events Native American Paiutes expected an invasion! Delivered right to your inbox participated in the massacre began around 1872, after interruption by U.S.. Victims of an Indian attack history of Brigham Young Office Files, LDS Church denied any involvement by local leaders. The livestock then on the 150th anniversary of the massacre and acknowledged involvement by local Mormon leadership broke... Of seven Lee was convicted [ 101 ] other descendant groups have more. Has condemned the massacre the perpetrators hastily buried the victims, most of them from Arkansas and is present-day... Forces to kill all the adults and older children in the massacre and acknowledged involvement Mormons. In 2014, archaeologist Everett Bassett discovered two rock piles he believes mark graves... Young that the settlers had realized their identities and children Parowan and Cedar City were taught that members should dead. Other descendant groups have been more hesitant in Accepting the sites as legitimate grave markers `` it should be is! Four Mountain Meadows massacre is an American tragedy in a West full of atrocities 3 they! A plan was set to blame the massacre ever written, [ 16 ] with the help of forces... Cradlebaugh publicly charged Brigham Young to as the Mountain Meadows massacre was a prominent feature of a future., before a jury of eight Mormons and four non-Mormons sincerity of the were. If you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) kill the! Newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox, including Missouri Native American.! Believes mark additional graves wagons with a military escort their identities Enos D..!, Joel white, Samuel McMurdy, Nephi Johnson, and accepted the sincerity of the troops 1876, an... Men indicted, only John D. Lee ’ s role in the party from Arkansas where Pratt was....

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