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effect of maternal mortality in nigeria

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background to the Study Maternal mortality remains the leading cause of death and disability for reproductive age women in resource poor countries. The 7 papers included in the BJOG supplement shed light on some aspects of the Nigerian maternity care and health system, particularly at the tertiary level, between 2012 and 2013. As UNICEF states, Nigeria loses 145 women to maternal mortality each day. Introduction Reducing maternal mortality remains a priority for global health. The Nigerian’s maternal mortality rates of 350 per 100,000 and 120 for 1,000 live birth is still very high compared to the regional average and other developed countries [19]. Nigeria maternal mortality rate for 2014 was 943.00, a 0.84% decline from 2013. Since contraceptive use is still stigmatized, many brides under the age of 18 are forced to give birth, and their bodies are very vulnerable to complications, therefore contributing to a high maternal mortality rate. the problem of infant-maternal mortality rate is in Nigeria and second, between 2016 and 2017 health spending witnessed 1.70% increment, while it plummeted by 7.80% between 2017 and 2018. The major causes of childhood mortality in Nigeria include malaria (30%), vaccine preventable diseases (22%), diarrhea (19%), acute respiratory tract infections (16%), etc., with malnutrition underlying about 60% of these childhood deaths. The study will be delimited to the effect of maternal mortality rate of women of child bearing age between the age of 20 – 40 years in Kutungare Igabi West Local Government area of Kaduna State Nigeria. United Nations projections are also included through the year 2100. This high level of maternal mortality is also linked to Nigeria’s high rate of deaths for children under 5—newborns account for a quarter of the under-five deaths which occur in the country. https://www.legit.ng/1108144-10-maternal-mortality-nigeria.html 25 June 2019, Geneva – Information is essential for change, but in settings where information is not readily available, epidemiological research becomes one of the most powerful sources of information for change. Between 2005 and 2015, it is estimated that over 600 000 maternal deaths and no less than 900 000 maternal near-miss cases occurred in the country. This systematic review aims at describing and indirectly measuring the effect of the Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health (MNCH) interventions implemented in Nigeria from 1990 to 2014. Environmental factors influencing maternal mortality in Zaria, Nigeria R Soc Health J. A woman attends a health education session in northern Nigeria. Like MMR, maternal deaths steadily declined from 532,000 in 1990 to 441,000 in 2000, and further to 302,000 in 2015 (the all time lowest). The World Health Organizatoin (WHO) says the high number of maternal deaths in some parts of the world reflects inequities in access to health services, and highlights the gap between rich and poor. At first glance, it appears that maternal mortality increased between 1983 and 1990, but in reality differences between the two estimates is almost certainly a reflection of the alternative strategies used for estimation (World Health Organization and United Nations Children 's Fund, 1996). 1980 Apr;100(2):72-4. doi: 10.1177/146642408010000211. Currently, Nigeria has the second highest burden of maternal mortality in the world and contributes about 15 percent of the annual total global deaths which represent two percent of the global population. The fact that many people cannot afford the healthcare that they need contributes to Nigeria’s high MMR. In fact, a Nigerian woman has a 1 in 22 lifetime risk of dying during pregnancy, childbirth or postpartum/post-abortion; whereas in the most developed countries, the lifetime risk is 1 in 4900. Put differently, at least 800 women die in every 100,000 live births. Rural women do not have the money to travel to hospitals to receive better care. It also needs to improve the quality of healthcare available, reduce the number of child marriages and de-stigmatize contraceptive use. WHO works to contribute to the reduction of maternal mortality by increasing research evidence, providing evidence-based clinical and programmatic guidance, setting global standards, and providing technical support to Member States. CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Maternal mortality, also known a maternal death, continues to be the major cause of death among women of reproductive age in many countries and remains a serious public health issue especially in developing countries (WHO 2007). An in-depth analysis of uterine rupture—a major sign of delays in managing obstructed labor–is also featured. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of nationally representative data from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Photo: Healthy Newborn Network, “The Borgen Project is an incredible nonprofit organization that is addressing poverty and hunger and working towards ending them.” It is also recommended that similar initiatives be put in place where health information systems are not fully operational and unable to generate actionable information. Preview EFFECT OF MALARIA ON MATERNAL MORTALITY RATE IN NIGERIA includes abstract and chapter one, complete project material available Objective This study aimed to assess the sociocultural correlates of maternal mortality in Nigeria. One in five maternal deaths, globally, are from Nigeria. Approximately two million women live with an untreated obstetric fistula in Sub-Saharan Africa and in Asia, and women with fistulas suffer incontinence, social segregation and health issues. In fact, a Nigerian woman has a 1 in 22 lifetime risk of dying during pregnancy, childbirth or postpartum/post-abortion; whereas in the most developed countries, the lifetime risk is 1 in 4900. A fistula, according to the World Health Organization, is a hole in the birth canal. Nigeria is also the country where nearly 20% of all global maternal deaths happen. There are many reasons why maternal mortality in Nigeria is so high, including a lack of access to healthcare, rampant poverty, substandard health care and the prevalence of child marriage. Nigeria has an extremely high rate of child marriage—43 percent of girls get married before the age of eighteen—and many of those girls are not given the option of whether or not they want to get pregnant. This high level of maternal mortality is also linked to Nigeria’s high rate of deaths for children under 5—newborns account for a quarter of the under-five deaths which occur in the country. The current infant mortality rate for Nigeria in 2021 is 57.701 deaths per 1000 live births, a 2.5% decline from 2020.; The infant mortality rate for Nigeria in 2020 was 59.181 deaths per 1000 live births, a 2.44% decline from 2019. It utilizes time series variables obtained from secondary source. It is against this background that this study is carried out to examine the effect of infant child and maternal mortality on the economy of Nigeria using Asaba and its environs, Delta State as a case study. Fifteen years earlier, the figure was slightly lower at 800 deaths per 100,000. By comparison, the total number of maternal deaths in 2015 in the 46 most developed countries was 1700, resulting in a maternal mortality ratio of 12 maternal deaths per 100 000 live births. The impact of a mother’s death on child outcomes is likely severe but has not been well quantified (Oestergaard, et al., 2011). BACKGROUND: The maternal mortality ratio in Nigeria is estimated to be about 814 per 100,000 live births, and deliveries taken outside a health facility have been implicated as a major factor for this high number. We also find that the magnitude of the effect of reductions in child mortality on GDP in high- The Nigeria Near-Miss and Maternal Death Survey revealed that intra-hospital quality of care issues, and delays in accessing the adequate level of care play a major part in the occurrence of maternal deaths. By comparison, the total number of maternal deaths in 2015 in the 46 most developed countries was 1700, resulting in a maternal mortality ratio of 12 maternal deaths per 100 000 live births. No relationships are found in 33 countries (19%). They are offshoots of a landmark survey - Nigeria Near-Miss and Maternal Death Survey – which recorded close to 1000 maternal deaths in 42 tertiary hospitals spread across Nigeria. As of 2015, the maternal mortality rate in Nigeria was 814 deaths per 100,000 live births. Poverty was also indirectly pointed as one of the causes of maternal mortality as Omoruyi (2008) opined that poor access to and utilization of quality reproductive health services contribute significantly to the high maternal … Improving maternal health is one of WHO’s key priorities. Most maternal death reviews in Nigeria are isolated research based reports from a single health facility. The impact of a mother’s death on child outcomes is likely severe but has not … Nigeria has a high poverty rate, with a 2010 report stating that 64.4 percent of the population lived in extreme poverty and 83.9 percent of the population lived in moderate to extreme poverty. EFFECTS OF INFANT AND MATERNAL MORTALITY ON THE ECONOMY OF NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF ASABA AND ITS ENVIRONS, DELTA STATE. Maternal mortality statistics remain very high in Nigeria; in fact, it is one of the highest in the world after India. Public Health Strategies to Prevent Maternal Mortality in Nigeria The prevention of maternal mortality and consequent improvement in the maternal health of Nigerian women is an all-encompassing task, which though tedious; is achievable through concerted efforts of health care providers, members of the society and government as a whole. INFANT AND MATERNAL MORTALITY ON THE ECONOMY OF NIGERIA . Sources: UNICEF, WHO 1 WHO 2, WHO 3, WHO 3, Global One Girls not Brides, IRIN News CIA World Factbook Even if women survive labor, many of them still have to live with the fistula. 25 June 2019, Geneva – Information is essential for change, but in settings where information is not readily available, epidemiological research becomes one of the most powerful sources of information for change. Nigeria presently has about 512 maternal mortality per 100,000 live births, making it the worst in the world, according to the Health Minister, Prof. Osagie Ehanire. Urban women have more of an opportunity to receive healthcare than rural women do. maternal mortality to GDP are found in 50 countries (29%) and one-way relationships from GDP to maternal mortality are found in 19 countries (11%). As stated in a Global One report about Nigeria, women in urban areas have over twice as many deliveries taking place in public and private health facilitates than women in rural areas. The Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) in Nigeria was 560 per 100,000 live births in 2013. Environmental factors influencing maternal mortality in Zaria, Nigeria. Learn how we are supporting children to reach their full potential. Nigeria also has a high fertility rate—five children per woman in 2014—which also impacts the MMR. Nigeria still ranks second globally in the number of maternal deaths. Many of these traditional birth attendants do not have the skills and training necessary for delivering a baby—for example, many are not able to perform C-sections—and for treating complications that can occur during birth. Nearly 100% of global maternal deaths occur in developing countries with more than half of these deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa and almost one third happening in South Asia. Chart and table of the Nigeria infant mortality rate from 1950 to 2021. If Nigeria wants to reduce its high levels of maternal mortality, it has to make sure that access to healthcare is more widespread. Maternal mortality ratios (MMR) were computed using the Poisson assumption to derive confidence intervals around the … trends in maternal mortality in Nigeria: Impact of the MDG effects of contraceptive prevalence on maternal and child health MDG and child mortality in Nigeria UNICEF in Nigeria We work to promote the rights of children in Nigeria. CAUSES OF MATERNAL MORTALITY IN NIGERIA By Maimuna Bintu Husaini Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social and Management Science, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria. Among the issues discussed in-depth include hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, postpartum haemorrhage, and unsafe abortion. Fistulas are directly connected to obstructed labor, a problem that contributes to high levels of maternal mortality. with the largest numbers of maternal deaths are Africa and Asia. Even if women in Nigeria are able to have access to a hospital, they sometimes still end up suffering. A supplement by BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology titled “Application of maternal near-miss approach to audits of severe maternal complications in a low-resource country” reinforces this message. Government poised to address maternal mortality. Introduction In the year 2000, the country with the highest estimated number of maternal death is India (136,000) followed by Nigeria (37,000) (World Health Organization, 2004). A supplement by, Application of maternal near-miss approach to audits of severe maternal complications in a low-resource country, When getting there is not enough: a nationwide cross-sectional study of 998 maternal deaths and 1451 near-misses in public tertiary hospitals in a low-income country, 10 ways to improve the quality of care in health facilities. This study determined causes and contributory factors of maternal mortality in Ogun statefollowing a periodic State-widematernal and perinatal deaths surveillance and response (MPDSR) review. In 2015, Nigeria’s estimated maternal mortality ratio was over 800 maternal deaths per 100 000 live births, with approximately 58 000 maternal deaths during that year. Fistulas are more common in women who give birth at a young age. Also it is of great importance to the Nigeria government, because of its positive effect on national development, through death control measures to enhance economic growth, and it will also provide pregnant women and nursing mothers with the necessary skill needed to control infant and maternal mortality, and finally it will equip the graduates with the awareness of the consequent effect of infant and maternal mortality … 1.2 Statement of Problem The effects of poor health go … This is especially true for regions with low numbers of skilled health workers, such as sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. (4)Population and Reproductive Health Program, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria. As UNICEF states, Nigeria loses 145 women to maternal mortality each day. For example, Global One’s report states that substandard birth techniques in government hospitals in North-Central Nigeria, including poor C-section procedures, accounted for 40 percent of all fistula injuries suffered by women in Nigeria. These women’s bodies are not ready for childbirth, leading to many health problems, including obstetric fistulas. Nigeria. At this time, we are especially working with partners to prevent the spread of diseases. CHAPTER ONE. Team leaders, hospital managers and policy makers should act on the information obtained from the survey to reduce maternal deaths and morbidity in Nigeria. 15–17 Nigeria needs immediate intervention to reduce her unacceptably high levels of maternal deaths. Nigeria is second only to India in terms of the number of maternal deaths it experiences, and along with five other countries—India, Pakistan, The Democratic Republic of the Congo, China and Ethiopia—Nigeria is part of a group which makes up more than 50 percent of the maternal mortalities that occur in the world. INTRODUCTION. In addition, WHO advocates for more affordable and effective treatments, designs training materials and guidelines for health workers, and supports countries to implement policies and programmes and monitor progress. The supplement helps readers understand the reasons for the high intra-hospital deaths associated with pregnancy-related complications. Nigeria maternal mortality rate for 2015 was 931.00, a 1.27% decline from 2014. Author G K Oyakhire. – The Huffington Post, https://borgenproject.org/wp-content/uploads/The_Borgen_Project_Logo_small.jpg. This is because some hospitals in Nigeria have substandard care. Close to 200 million people inhabit Nigeria, considered Africa’s most populous country. Background: The under-5 mortality rate in many developing countries has shown little or no improvement over the years. Moreover, maternity care and the underlying health system experience challenges in reducing avoidable deaths and promoting health and well-being. This is because women in rural areas are normally not able to afford the transport to the hospitals in urban areas, and have to settle for midwives or traditional birth attendants—or no help at all—when giving birth. The study investigates the effect of malaria on maternal mortality rate in Nigeria for the period spanning 1990 to 2017. A joint report (Trends in Maternal Mortality: 1990 to 2015 by WHO, UNICEF, World Bank and United Nations Population Fund) estimates that Nigeria has approximately 58,000 maternal deaths, accounting for 19% globally. 1.1 Background to the Study Maternal mortality remains the leading cause of death and disability for reproductive-age women in resource-poor countries. Many interventions have been instituted to reverse the trend and ensure that Nigeria is on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. This high maternal and child mortality is a multiplier effect of the various anomalies experienced in … This means that millions of births are not assisted by a midwife, a doctor or a trained nurse. Globally in 2015, births in the richest 20 per cent of households were more than twice as likely to be attended by skilled health personnel as those in the poorest 20 per cent of households (89 per cent versus 43 per cent). The WHO Factsheet (2008) indicates that globally, among the indirect causes of maternal deaths are diseases that complicate pregnancy such as malaria, anaemia, sickle cell anaemia etc. Objectives: To determine the incidence and causes of maternal mortality as well as its temporal distribution over the last decade (1990–1999).Study design: All maternal deaths recorded within the study period in the State of Kano, Northern Nigeria, were analyzed. In Nigeria, more than 70 percent of maternal deaths occur due to five major complications: haemorrhage, infection, unsafe abortion, hypertensive disease of pregnancy and obstructed labour. WHO adds that poor women in remote areas are the least likely to receive adequate health care. More than half of maternal deaths occur in fragile and humanitarian settings. Contraceptive use is slowly becoming more widespread and acceptable, but in 2008, only 10 percent of women used contraceptives. 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