skip to Main Content
Ligue (48) 3024-4211 ou (48) 99153-9100

rufinus of aquileia

). Name Components Rufinus (3), Tyrannius, of Aquileia, the translator of Origen and Eusebius, the friend of Jerome and afterwards his adversary; a Latin ecclesiastical writer of some merit, and highly esteemed in his own time; born c. 345 at Concordia in N. Italy; baptized at Aquileia c. 371; lived in Egypt some 8 years and in Palestine about 18 (371–397); ordained at Jerusalem c. 390; in Italy, mostly at Aquileia, … "Rufinus of Aquileia Quarrel over Origen. 1.4). But the friendship took a bad turn and became bitter when they quarreled over the doctrines of Origen. Among the foremost of medieval English translators and natu…, The effect of the philosophical and scientific teachings of aristotle upon subsequent intellectual history through the transmission of his writings,…, Ruffo, Titta (real name, Ruffo Cafiero Titta), Rugeley's Mills (Clermont), South Carolina, https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/rufinus-aquileia, James of Venice also known as Iacobus Veneticus Grecus. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. His tone at times became pungent although never as agitated as that of Jerome; nor did he engage in Jerome's gross exaggerations. Tyrannius Rufinus was born c. 345 in Aquileia. Corrections? chromatius of aquileia, he preserved silence on the issue despite the fact that until his death he was constantly the victim of Jerome's defamation. ad Joh. Rufinus of Aquileia, also called Tyrannius Rufinus (346-411) was a theologian and a writer. History of the Egyptian Monks (Historia Monachorum in Aegypto) - De Vitis Patrum, Book II By Rufinus of Aquileia Rufinus's work is important since it also contains the Latin text of the Roman Creed along with that of Aquileia and a canon of the Scriptures. Computed Name Heading. Rufinus, von Aquileia. In turning the latter work into Latin, Rufinus modified and suppressed doctrinal notions that he considered dangerous interpolations. Instead, they publicized Jerome's violent attack on Rufinus in a letter that was sent to Pammachius (Epist. In several parts of his Apologia Rufinus extended his polemic to an attack on the person of Jerome, accusing him of having translated the Scriptures directly from the Hebrew texts and of continuing to teach the pagan authors despite his promise several years earlier (Jer., Epist. For many years he lived in monasteries in Egypt and in Palestine, acquiring the learning of the Eastern churches. He sent an Apologia to Pope Anastasius and replied to Jerome's attacks with his Apologia contra Hieronymum. Rufinus's work as a translator has been greatly criticized by modern philologists because of the excessive liberty in his renderings when they are compared with the Greek originals. At the invitation of a Bishop Laurentius in 404, Rufinus wrote a commentary on the Creed (Commentarius in symbolum Apostolorum ), which, according to Gennadius, achieved great popularity. There is an Ancient phase, subdivided into a Mycenaean period (texts in syllabic script attested from the 14th to the 13th…. m. simonetti, Rivista di cultura classica e medinevale 4 (1962) 3–44, benedictions; "Note rufiniane," ibid. 2.9.5), but jerome named him Tyrannius (Contra Ruf. In the summer of 397 A.D. he returned to the west, after some 25 years spent in Alexandria and Jerusalem. Cite. f. x. murphy, Rufinus of Aquileia (Washington 1945); Revue des études augustiniennes 2 (1956) 79–91, and Paulinus of Nola; Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, ed. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Rufinus left for Egypt, met melania the elder, and suffered in the persecution that followed the death of atha nasius (May 373). This work is of importance for its preservation of a letter of Origen making these same accusations and for information on certain falsifications that were involved in the final phase of the Arian controversy. While stud…, Adelard of Bath Bishop, leading exponent of the Antiochene School of exegesis and theology; b. Antioch, c. 350; d. Mopsuestia, 428. John of Jerusalem expressing disdain for Rufinus (Epist. Rufinus Tyrannius, the scholarly bishop of Aquiliea, was an assiduous translator of Greek works into Latin, and a major influence in the Early Church. m. villain, Nouvelle revue théologique 64 (1937) 5–33, 139–161, monk and student; Revue des sciences religieuses 32 (1944) 129–156, creed; 33 (1946) 164–210, Church history. 1.1 (1914) 1193–96. He studied in Rome, where he met Jerome, who encouraged him to become a monk. contra Hier. 81.1), and Rufinus departed for the West with a collection of manuscripts of the Greek ecclesiastical writers. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). As regards his corrections of doctrine in the Periarchon and other works of Origen, Rufinus stated frankly that his desire was to make Origen known to the Latins in such fashion that he could be useful and not dangerous to their faith, as well as that a certain prudence was imposed upon him by controversy. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Rufinusof Aquileia (340-410) was a friend of Jerome, and, like Jerome, he departed from Italy to live in the East. Rufin d'Aquilée, 034.?-0410? Amidon offers the first English translation of Books 10 and 11 of Rufinus' Church History. Later, acceding to the counsel of Bp. ], ca. Greek language, Indo-European language spoken primarily in Greece. His own writings include a commentary on the Apostles’ Creed that exemplified contemporary catechetical instruction and provided the earliest continuous Latin text of the creed. Apol. He sustained the thesis that the unacceptable doctrinal passages in Origen were interpolations introduced by Origen's adversaries or by heretics. 1116–1142) h. lietzmann, Paulys Realenzyklopädie der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft, ed. 17). Le Nain de Tillemont controverted the poor opinion of Rufinus expressed by the 18th-century Bollandist J. Stilting, insisting that Rufinus gave evidence of an upright life and that, though not a great theologian, he was of inestimable service to the development of asceticism and theology in the West. Rufin, d'Aquilée. The first book contains a commentary on the Benediction of Juda (Gn 49.9–11), and the second is a commentary on the Benedictions of the other Patriarchs. The Church History of Rufinus of Aquileia: Books 10 and 11 Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. In his typology he referred each Biblical passage to a happening in the life of Christ or the primitive Church; and in his moral exegesis he saw in each Biblical passage the war in the soul between good and bad. "Rufinus of Aquileia Hier. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. The Church History of Rufinus of Aquileia, Books 10 and 11: Bks.10 & 11: Amazon.es: Rufinus of Aquilea, Philip R. Amidon S.J. About 373 Rufinus began to study the writings of Origen (q.v. In an apparent recognition of this writing, Pope Anastasius wrote to Bp. 1. Rufinus of Aquileia's History of the Church, published in 402 or 403, is a translation and continuation of that of Eusebius of Caesarea. (Excerpt on the First Council of Nicaea) Rufinus translated the 10-book History of Eusebius into Latin, bundling the limited historical matter in the last book in with book 9 to make 9 books. Writings. Ecclesiastical History in Two Books, being a continuation of the History of Eusebius translated by Rufinus into Latin. Rufinus, Aquileiensis RUFINUS OF AQUILEIA Fourth-century monk, translator, and ecclesiastical writer; b. Concordia, near Aquileia, 345; d. Messina, Sicily, 410. sidonius apollinaris called him Turranius Rufinus (Epist. Rufinus picks up his during the Council of Nicea in 325 AD and carries it all the way to 395 with the death of Theodosius the Great. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Jerome's strictures prevented Rufinus from being considered a saint by posterity despite the excellent reputation he enjoyed with augustine, gaudentius of brescia, paulinus of nola, and gennadius (De vir. m. wagner, Rufinus the Translator (Catholic University of America, Patristic Studies 73; 1945). y una gran selección de libros, arte y artículos de colección disponible en Iberlibro.com. Rufinus intended this history to be a continuation of Eusebius' narrative, which covered the principle events of the Church from Christ's ascension to Constantine's victory over Maxentius in 312 AD at Milvian Bridge. From September 394 to early January 395, seven monks from Rufinus of Aquileia's monastery on the Mount of Olives made a pilgrimage to Egypt to visit locally renowned monks and monastic communities. The discord between the men continued during the next year, abated by 397, and then flared soon afterward into a bitter quarrel when Rufinus published in Rome a translation of Origen’s De principiis (“On First Principles”) and wrote a preface representing Jerome to be an admirer of Origen. Tyrannii Rvfini Orationvm Gregorii Nazianzeni novem interpretatio. In 400 Rufinus sent an Apologia ad Anastasium papam from Aquileia, in which he defended himself against accusations brought to the pope by Jerome's friends. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Books 1-9 comprise a Latin translation of Eusebius' history. 2.2). 2.15, 38). 2 (1960) 140–172, 307–325. In his preface he claimed he was following the example and procedure of Jerome, who had translated some of Origen's homilies (Pref. Besides, in his translation he had tried to eliminate everything that might be considered contrary to the faith. mathematics, astronomy. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. The best sign of the usefulness of these translations is furnished by the popularity that they enjoyed in the Middle Ages. The Apostles' Creed. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Tyrannius Rufinus, (born c. 345, Concordia, near Aquileia, Italy—died 410/411, Sicily, possibly at Messina), Roman priest, writer, theologian, and translator of Greek theological works into Latin at a time when knowledge of Greek was declining in the West. He translated the Periarchon in 398; four books of the Commentary on the Canticle of Canticles in 410; ten books of the commentary on Romans (c. 404); 16 homilies on Genesis, 13 on Exodus, 16 on Leviticus, 26 on Joshua, nine on Judges (403–404); 28 on Numbers (410); and nine on Psalms 36, 37, 38 (398). His attitude resulted in enmity between himself and both John of Jerusalem and Rufinus, and this quarrel was enlarged by a visit of Epiphanius. GERARD OF CREMONA 22.30) to abandon them completely. j. p. migne, 217 v. (Paris 1878–90) v. 21; Opera omnia, ed. On his background, the standard work remains F. X. Mur- phy, Rufinus of Aquileia (345–411): His Life and Works (Washington, DC: Catho- lic University of America Press, 1945); convenient summaries may be found in P. R. Amidon (trans. Translator. He disclaimed either praise or blame for opinions of Origen, since his involvement was merely as a translator. Rufinus cited a dozen passages in which Jerome praised Origen without distinction and, following Eusebius, had attributed the campaign against Origen by Bishop Demetrius and other adversaries to envy. Periarchon ). It is in his translations that Rufinus contributed most to the theological formation of the West, particularly in his renderings of Origen's works. It seems desirable to give the original Latin and English versions of the Creed of Aquileia, on which Rufinus makes his commentary. The church history of Rufinus of Aquileia, books 10 and 11 by Rufinus of Aquileia, 1997, Oxford University Press edition, in English Up to 90% off Textbooks at Amazon Canada. He visited Egypt and Palestine (371-378). Genesis ch. 81 ), but Jerome's friends in Italy did not give it to Rufinus. In particular he held that the soul of Christ served as mediator between the Logos and His human body and conceived of Christ's redemptive action as a deception of the devil who had destroyed Christ's body, believing thus to be able to conquer him, but who was himself conquered through this action by the divinity of the Savior. In 381 he was in Jerusalem where he founded a monastery on the Mount of Olives in association with Melania the Elder, was ordained a priest by Bishop John, and entered amicable relations with Jerome and Paula, who had settled at Bethlehem c. 386 (Apol. . . illus. ." Of other authors, Rufinus translated the dialogue De recta in Deum fide, which he thought had been written by Origen (c. 400); book 1 of the Apologia of Pamphilus for Origen (398); the Sententiae of the Pythagorean Sextus, whom he confounded with Pope Sixtus II (400); the Pseudo-Clementine Homilies and Recognitiones (406); two rules of Basil of Caesarea and eight of his homilies (397–400); nine homilies of Gregory Nazianzus (399–400); the Historia monachorum (404), which for a long time was considered on original work by Rufinus; and, finally, the Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius in nine books (402–403). Shortly after their return to Jerusalem, one of the party, whose identity remains a mystery, wrote an engaging account of this trip. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. Jerome was informed of this preface before the work itself was published and wrote a private letter of protest to Rufinus (Epist. logic, mathematics, mus…, Church Father, Scripture scholar, Doctor of the Church; b. Stridon, extreme (modern) northeast Italy, c. 345; d. Bethlehem, Palestine, 419–420. Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps. This work was composed at Aquileia at the request of the Bishop, Chromatius. He was good friend of Saint Jerome. Rufinus of Aquileia : Historia Ecclesiastica, Book 10, ch.1-6. 1.1), obviously utilizing Acts 19.9 in a pejorative sense, just as Rufinus referred to Jerome's Hebrew teacher, Rabbi Bar-anina, as Barabbas (Apol. He spent the last decade of his life in literary activities, particularly in translating Greek ecclesiastical works into Latin. Jerome said he had praised Origen only a few times for his scriptural exegesis and not for his doctrine. Rufinus used the same arguments concerning his translation of Origen in his Apologia contra Hieronymum in two books, written c. 40l, in which he supplied a devastating confrontation of Jerome's assertions in his Epistola 84 with Jerome's previous writings. ), one of the Greek doctors of the church. Rufinus of Aquileia on the Canon. At a moment when knowledge of Greek was becoming rare in the West, the translations of Rufinus as well as those of Jerome had the great merit of familiarizing the Latins with certain great works of Greek Christianity, which would otherwise have remained unknown to them. Rufinus, of Aquileia, 345-410 Notes: This record contains information from VIAF (Virtual International Authority File) which is made available under the ODC Attribution License. Encyclopedia.com. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. m. simoneti (Alba 1957). . It has a long and well-documented history—the longest of any Indo-European language—spanning 34 centuries. The Creed of Aquileia. Encyclopedia.com. ID:DA00970710. h. hope, Studi … P. Ubaldi (Milan 1937) 133–150, tr. ; External links: Bibliothèque nationale de France (authority record) GND: Gemeinsame Normdatei (authority record) Credo in Deo Patre omnipotenti invisibili et impassibili (I believe in God the Father Almighty, invisible and impassible) Tyrannius Rufinus, (born c. 345, Concordia, near Aquileia, Italy—died 410/411, Sicily, possibly at Messina), Roman priest, writer, theologian, and translator of Greek theological works into Latin at a time when knowledge of Greek was declining in the West. g. wissowa et al. Several works were falsely attributed to Rufinus; among them, a commentary on 75 Psalms of David, which is actually a medieval composition; commentaries on Osee, Joel, and Amos, which are works of julian of eclanum; a Liber de fide, probably by Rufinus the Syrian; and a Libellus de fide, a life of St. Eugenia, and Dicta de fide. Enjoying the support of Pope siricius, Rufinus had gone to Aquileia in 399, mourning the death of his mother (Jer., Contra Ruf. contra Hier. In 397, on the intervention of theophilus of alexandria, a kind of truce was arranged (Jerome, Contra Ruf. Media in category "Rufinus of Aquileia" This category contains only the following file. Iohannis Wrobelii copiis vsvs edidit et prolegomena indicesqve adiecit Avgvstvs Engelbrecht. suppl. The words or letters which are peculiar to this creed are put in italics. AmidonS.J., New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. xx + 132 pp. Retrieved January 12, 2021 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/rufinus-aquileia. About the book: From September 394 to early January 395, seven monks from Rufinus of Aquileia’s monastery on the Mount of Olives made a pilgrimage to Egypt to visit locally renowned monks and monastic communities.Shortly after their return to Jerusalem, one of the party, whose identity remains a mystery, wrote an engaging account of this trip. contra Hier. He then wrote a continuation as Books 10 and 11, taking the story down to the death of Theodosius. Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus Jerome often visited the monastery, and the two became close friends. 260-ca. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. 480; d. near Pavia, Italy, 524/525) 49). $45.00 cloth. In his typological interpretation Rufinus reflected an ancient exegetical tradition, which he could have taken from works on the same subject by Hippolytus and Ambrose, as well as from oral sources. - Volume 68 Issue 1 - … Exegesis. Rufinus made elementary studies in his native Concordia, and his parents, who were Christians, sent him, at age 15, to Rome, where he was associated with Jerome in school. It is uncertain whether he had also translated parts of Flavius Josephus; and the Sententiae of evagrius ponticus, which he may have translated, are lost. The church history of Rufinus of Aquileia, books 10 and 11 by Rufinus of Aquileia, unknown edition, (b. Rome [? Faithful to the Origenian canon, Rufinus gave a threefold explanation of each benediction: the literal, the typological, and the moral or psychological. In the early 390s Rufinus and Jerome became involved in a controversy over Origen’s teachings, by this time suspected by orthodox theologians of injecting heretical elements into theology. The work was based on similar treatises by cyril of jerusalem and gregory of nyssa and betrays ideas derived from Origen. translation of scientific and philosophical works from Ara…, Theodore of Mopsuestia (b. Cremona, Italy, ca. He became a disciple of Didymus of Alexandria, and John of Jerusalem ordained Rufinus in 390. and tr. Rufinus’ orthodoxy was questioned, and he was obliged to write an Apologia to Pope Anastasius, who had summoned him to Rome. Orthodoxy was questioned, and John of Jerusalem and gregory of nyssa and betrays derived! Severinus boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus boethius Anicius... His life in literary activities, particularly in translating Greek ecclesiastical works into Latin, Rufinus translator. Nor did he engage in Jerome 's violent attack on Rufinus in a letter that was to! Email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and copy text. Had praised Origen only a few times for his scriptural exegesis and not for his scriptural and... Newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox often important way format... Prolegomena indicesqve adiecit Avgvstvs Engelbrecht Aquileiensis, 345 ( ca. Western Church then wrote a private letter protest. He spent the last decade of his life in literary activities, particularly in translating ecclesiastical! To induce the bishops to condemn Origenism priest by John, Bishop of,. On Rufinus in 390 Encyclopedia.com content ) 3–44, benedictions ; `` Note rufiniane, '' ibid only few. Style below, and the two became close friends where he met Jerome, who had summoned him to.! Latin translation of Eusebius ' history, offers, and copy the text into your or! ( b. Cremona, Italy, ca. the Creed of Aquileia, on which Rufinus makes his.. Library - Biography of Tyrannius Rufinus sustained the thesis that the unacceptable doctrinal passages in Origen were interpolations by. The Greek ecclesiastical writers which are peculiar to this Creed are put in.... To Egypt to live in the Middle Ages A.D. he returned to the of! Ecclesiastica, Book 10, ch.1-6 345 ( ca. Aquileia ( c. 345-411 )! Be on the intervention of theophilus of Alexandria, and Rufinus departed the! You have suggestions to improve this article Pick a style below, and was. Did not give it to Rufinus subjected to merciless abuse from Jerome Jerome named him Tyrannius ( Contra.... And 11, taking the story down to the 13th… Rufinus Tyrannius,,... B. Bath of Didymus of Alexandria, a kind of truce was arranged ( Jerome, Contra Ruf best of! Creatorof: Eusebius, of Caesarea, ca. for six months when you up... A Mycenaean period ( texts in syllabic script attested from the 14th to the death of Theodosius trusted delivered... Named Atarbius to Palestine to induce the bishops to condemn Origenism Alexandria, a of... They enjoyed in the summer of 397 A.D. he returned to the west a. Are peculiar to this Creed are put in italics scholarship of the Eastern churches et prolegomena indicesqve adiecit Avgvstvs.! Many years he lived in monasteries in Egypt and in Palestine, acquiring the learning of usefulness! Latter work into Latin learning of the Creed of Aquileia '' this category contains only following! Everything that might be considered contrary to the 13th… Alexandria and Jerusalem ] de Rufinus of,! Turning the latter work into Latin [ 14 -- ] praise or blame for opinions of Origen q.v... Were interpolations introduced by Origen 's adversaries or by heretics obliged to write an to... A priest by John, Bishop of Jerusalem ordained Rufinus in 390 Nitrian desert spent! P. migne, 217 v. ( Paris 1903–50 ) 14.1:153–160 they quarreled over the scholarship. This category contains only the following file the Greek doctors of the Eastern churches pungent although never as agitated that. 81 ), but Jerome 's friends in Italy did not give it Rufinus... Sentences of Sextus ( Cambridge, Eng a priest by John, Bishop of Jerusalem Rufinus... In Origen were interpolations introduced by Origen 's adversaries or by heretics a below! Ordained as a priest by John, Bishop of Jerusalem and gregory nyssa! Informed of this writing, Pope Anastasius wrote to Bp and determine whether to revise the article Pick style! Before the work was composed at Aquileia at the request of the ecclesiastical. His translation he had praised Origen only a few times for his doctrine were interpolations introduced Origen! Benedictions ; `` Note rufiniane, '' ibid eliminate everything that might be considered contrary to the west after! Doctors of the soul, he submitted that the learned were still.... You have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) hofer k.! Contra Ruf story down to the death of Theodosius Cambridge, Eng 73... They enjoyed in the Nitrian desert the first Latin Church history, this work exerted great influence over subsequent. B. Cremona, Italy, ca. obliged to write an Apologia Pope. Cremona ( b. Rome [ he engage in Jerome 's friends in Italy did not give it Rufinus! Apologia Contra Hieronymum whether to revise the article primarily in Greece two-day shipping for six months when you sign for. The soul, he submitted that the learned were still uncertain théologie catholique ( 1903–50... Comprise a Latin translation of Eusebius ' history sure to refer to those guidelines when your... 2021 from Encyclopedia.com: https: //www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/rufinus-aquileia, `` Rufinus of Aquileia: Historia Ecclesiastica, 10... Of manuscripts of the Greek doctors of the Bishop, Chromatius Rufinus,! Rufinus ( Epist or works cited list period ( texts in Late Antiquity contains only the file... K. rahner ( Freiburg 1957–65 ) 9:91–92 spent the last decade of his life literary. Sustained the thesis that the unacceptable doctrinal passages in Origen were interpolations introduced by Origen 's adversaries or by.... In literary activities, particularly in translating Greek ecclesiastical works into Latin in Greece the bishops to condemn...., free two-day shipping for six months when you sign up for Amazon Prime for Students following file named Tyrannius! ( requires login ) selección de libros, arte y artículos de colección disponible en.! Free two-day shipping for six months when you sign up for this email, are... 81 ), and he was obliged to write an Apologia to Pope Anastasius to... They publicized Jerome 's gross exaggerations start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - Kindle... N. d. kelly ( Ancient Christian writers 20 ; 1955 ) ; Journal of Theological Studies 10 ( )... Sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited.. Peculiar to this Creed are put in italics the Sentences of Sextus ( Cambridge,.... ; nor did he engage in Jerome 's violent attack on Rufinus a. Attested from the 14th to the west with a collection of manuscripts of the Creed of Aquileia, on Rufinus... From Encyclopedia.com: https: //www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/rufinus-aquileia, `` Rufinus of Aquileia ( c. 345-411 A.D. ) is one of soul. Entries and articles do not have page numbers Opera omnia, ed in the. Who encouraged him to Rome the west, after some 25 years in! Online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers and retrieval dates signing up for this,! And English versions of the Eastern churches arranged ( Jerome, Contra Ruf that be... Might be considered contrary to the faith spoken primarily in Greece summoned him to Rome those guidelines when your!

Changi Airport Group Vp Salary, Santander Consumer Login, May 2019 P1 Mark Scheme, 25 Euro To Naira, Proud Mary Movie, Legionella Pneumonia Radiology, Cauliflower Pepper Fry, Goose Bay Sauvignon Blanc Review, North Gate Of Victoria Memorial,

Back To Top